Soils of India - Indian Geography

Soils of India - Indian Geography

Soils of India - Indian Geography
Soils of India - Indian Geography

Indian council of agricultural research (ICAR) has divided Indian soils into eight major groups .


1.       They are by far the largest and the most important soil group of India. They are composed of sediments deposited by rivers and waves. Their chemical composition makes them one of the most fertile in the world. Usually deficient in nitrogen and humus ( the fertilizers are needed).
2.       2. Occupy the plains ( from Punjab to Assam) and also occur in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti in MP and Gujrat, Mahanandi in the MP and Orisa, Godawari IN A.P and Cauvery in Tamilnadu.
3.       Can be divided into Khadar(NEW ) and Bhangar(older, more clayey and kankary) alluvium.


1.       Also called Regur and is ideal for cotton crops. These soils have been formed due to the solidification of lava spread over  large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau. Thousands of years ago.
2.       They are black due to compounds of iron and aluminum ( also because of titaniferous magnetite).
3.       Mainly  found in Deccan Plateau – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhyapradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Naru.
4.       Apart from cotton cultivation, these fertile soils are suitable for growing cereals, oilseeds, citrus fruits and vegetables, tobacco and sugarcane.
5.       They have high moisture retention level.
6.       Lack  in phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic matter,


1.       They are mainly formed due to the decomposition of ancient crystalline rocks lie granites and gneisses and from rock types rich in minerals such as iron and magnesium. the term red soil is due to the wide diffusion of iron oxides through the materials of the soils.
2.       Covers almost the whole of Tamil Naru, Karnataka , Andhra Pradesh, southeast Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, parts of Orissa, Jharkhand, and Bundelkhand.
3.       Generally deficient in nitrogen, humus, and phosphorous, but rich in potash.
4.       Suitable for rice, millets, tobacco, and vegetables ( also groundnuts and potatoes at higher elevations.)


1.       Found in typical monsoon conditions – under the condition of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. The alterations of the wet and dry season lead to the leaching away of siliceous matter and lime of the rocks and a soil rich in oxides of iron and aluminum compounds is left behind.
2.       Found in parts of westers ghat, eastern ghats , Rajmahal hills, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala. Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Tamil naru, etc.
3.       Poor in nitrogen and minerals.
4.       Best for tea coffee rubber, cinchona, coco ut and suitable for rice and millet cultivation if manured.


1.       Such soils are mainly found on the hill slopes covered by forest. the formation of these soils is mainly governed by the characteristic deposition of organic matter derived from forest growth.
2.       In the Himalayan region such soils are mainly found in valley basins, depressions and less steeply inclined slopes. apart from the Himalayan regions the forest soils occur in the higher hills in the south an the peninsular region.
3.       3. Very rich in humus but are deficient in potash. phosphorous and lime and needs fertilizers.
4.       Plantation of tea, coffer spices and tropical fruits.


1.       A large part of the arid and semi-arid region in Rajasthan and adjoining areas of Punjab and Haryana lying between the Indus and the Aravalli receiving less than 50 cm of annual rainfall is affected by desert conditions.
2.       The area is covers by a mantle of sand which inhibits soil growth.
3.       The phosphate content of these soils is as high as in normal alluvial soils. nitrogen is originally low but its deficiency is made up to some extent by the availability of nitrogen in the form of nitrates. thus the presence of phosphates and nitrates make them fertile soils wherever moisture is available.
4.       The changes in the cropping pattern in the Indira Gandhi canal command area a living example of the utility of the desert soil.


1.       In the drier parts of Bihar, up Haryana ., Panjab Rajasthan an Maharashtra are the salt impregnated or alkaline soils. Known by different names reh , kallar , usar, etc.
2.       Some of the salts are transported in solution by the rivers and canals, which percolates in the subsoils of the plains.
3.       The accumulation of salts makes the soil infertile and renders it unfit for agriculture.


1.       Originate in the humid regions as a result of the accumulation of large amounts of organic matter in the soil. They contain considerable amounts of soluble salts and 10-40% of organic matter.
2.       Peaty soils are found in Kottayam and Alappuzha districts of Kerala, where it is called Kari.
3.       Marshy soils high in vegetable matter, are found in northern Bihar, coastal parts of Odisha, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and parts of Uttar Pradesh.


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